A deceased person can enjoy reward of good deeds in a two different ways
1. Good deeds performed by himself when he was alive
2. Good deeds performed by others ( mainly his hair) after his death, also known as a ehsal e sawab
Let us discuss first type that is deeds performed by himself
Sunan abu dawood 2880.
18 Wills (Kitab Al-Wasaya) B 18 H 19
It was reported from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:
“When a (any) person dies his deeds discontinue, except for three things:
- Ongoing charity, like trees, artificial resources of drinking water, masjid or madarsa,
- knowledge which people benefit from, like – Islamic knowledge, medical knowledge etc
- and a righteous son (daughter) who prays for him. ( Sahih )
the Messenger of Allah( Muhammad ﷺ) said:
A man will be raised in status in Paradise and (he ) will say (ask): ‘Where did this come from?’ And it will be said (to him):
‘From your son’s praying for forgiveness for you.
Hasan : Sunan Ibn Majah 3660
Book of Eticates, Book no 33, H = 4
2– deeds perform by others as an Ehsale sawab
Sunan abu dawood 2883.
18Wills (Kitab Al-Wasaya) B =18, H = 22
It was reported from ‘Amr bin Shu’aib, from his father, from his grandfather, that Al-‘As bin Wail (a companion of Prophet Muhammadﷺ) instructed in his will that one hundred slaves be freed on his behalf (after his death). His son Hisham freed fifty (50) slaves, and his son ‘Amr wanted to free the remaining fifty (50) on his behalf. He said: “I will not do it until I ask the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad saws)
So he came to the Prophet (Muhammadﷺ) and said: “0 Messenger of Allah! My father instructed in his will to free one hundred slaves on his behalf (after his death). Hisham has freed fifty (50) slaves on his behalf and fifty (50) remain. Can I free them on his behalf?”
The Messenger of Allah (saws) said:
If he had been a Muslim and
1.you freed the slaves on his behalf
2. gave charity on his behalf and
3. performed hajj (pilgrimage) on his behalf
it would have reached him.”
Such good deeds done on their behalf by their descendants, will only benefit the Muslims after their death.
The only those good deeds which belongs to prophet religion are acceptable
A’ishah reported the Allah’s Messenger(ﷺ) as saying:
If any one introduces into this affair (religion) of ours anything which does not belong to it, it is rejected.
Ibn `Isa said: The Prophet (muhammad ﷺ) said:
If anyone practices any action in a way other than our practice, it is rejected.
Grade: Sahih Sunan Abi Dawud 4606
Book of Modle behaviour of Prophet pbuh B 42 , H = 11