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Athan time – adhan time

Hadith

It was narrated from Sulaiman bin Buraidah that his father said:

“A man came to the Prophet and asked him about the times of the prayer. He said: ‘Pray with us for two days.’ When the sun passed its zenith he commanded Bilal to call the Adhan, then he commanded him to give the Iqamah for Zuhr;
then he commanded him to give the Iqamah for ‘Asr when the sun was high and clearly white.
Then he commanded him to give the Iqamah for Maghrib when the sun had set;
then he commanded him to give the Iqamah for ‘Isha’ when the red afterglow had disappeared;
then  he commanded him to give the Iqamah for Fajr when dawn came.
 On the following day he commanded him to give the Adhan for Zuhr when the extreme heat had passed and it had cooled down; then he prayed ‘Asr when the sun was still high, but he delayed it more than he had done the day before; then he prayed Maghrib before the red afterglow disappeared; he prayed ‘Isha’ when one-third of the night had passed; and he prayed Fajr at the time when it was already light.
Then he said: ‘Where is the one who was asking about the times of Prayer?’ The man said: ‘Here I am, O Messenger of Allah.’ He said: ‘The times of your prayer are between the times you have seen.'”

Sahih (Darussalam)

Sunan Ibn Majah 667
In-book : Book 2, Hadith 1

Hadith
It was narrated that Abu Hurairah said:

“The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: This is ‘Jibril, peace be upon you, he came to teach you your religion. He prayed Subh when the dawn appeared, and he prayed Zuhr when the sun had (passed its zenith), and he prayed ‘Asr when he saw that the shadow of a thing was equal to its height, then he prayed Maghrib when the sun had set and it is permissible for the fasting person to eat. Then he prayed ‘Isha’ when the twilight had disappeared. Then he came to him the following day and prayed Subh when it had got a little lighter, then he prayed Zuhr when the shadow of a thing was equal to its height, then he prayed ‘Asr when the shadow of a thing was equal to twice its height, then he prayed Maghrib at the same time as before, then he prayed ‘Isha’ when a short period of the night had passed. Then he said: ‘The prayer is between the times when you prayed yesterday and the times when you prayed today.'”

Hasan (Darussalam)

Sunan an-Nasa’i.   Hadith 9
 Vol. 1, Book 6, Hadith 506


* With regard to any prayer, it is best to perform it at the earliest after the onset of the permissible time for it, although it is also permissible to delay it  as long as it does not cross the prescribed limit of time for that particular prayer.
*  It is permissible to sometimes leave the optimum for something other than optimum, but only for purposes prudent or educative. It is not, however, proper to make a habit of it.
*  Cooling down of the day for Zuhr (early afternoon prayer) means waiting for reduction in the intensity of the heat. It is, as we  know, extremely hot at noon in the summer season.
* The Zuhr prayer can, therefore, wait a little
after the sun has passed its zenith. There is, however, no justification for such delays in colder weathers.
*  It may be noted that the time for Asr (afternoon prayer), for both the days mentioned in the Hadith, has been expressed in similar terms, namely:
(i)  “When the sun was high and dearly white, and
(ii) ‘When the sun was still high.
*  The time for Maghrib (early evening prayer) starts with the sinking of the sundisk on the horizon, and ends with the disappearance of the red  afterglow appearing on the west.
*  The time for ‘Isha  (night prayer) starts with the disappearance of the red afterglow. As inferred from the hadith its end seems to be the passing of  one-third of the night. Some other hadith suggest it to be until the passing
of half of the night.

Hadith

It was narrated that ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud said:

“The Prophet (ﷺ) prayed Zuhr when the length of (a person’s shadow) was between three and five feet in summer, and between five and seven feet in winter.”

Sahih (Darussalam)
Sunan an-Nasa’i   Hadith 507

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